Photographic recording divides into three general groups, namely, glow tube or crater lamp; light valves as exemplified by the Kerr cell, and the galvanometer. Bromide paper or its negative film equivalent is generally employed as a record surface.
Korn in 1906 and Belin in 1908 were among the first to make practicaluse of the galvanometer method. Glow tubes or crater lamps have had wide application, but difficulty in maintaining consistency in manufacture and operation has generally led to their replacement with some form of light valve or galvanometer arrangement.
The following references are typical of the published and patented art.
Belin (U.S. Patent 915,154, E. Belin)
ZSF Techn. Phys. (Z.S.f. Techn. Phys., Vol. 10, p. 634)
Wright (Proc. Phys. Soc., Vol. 44, Part 3, May, 1932, W.D. Wright)
Case (French Patent 748,285, T.W. Case)
Keen (U.S. Patent 1,503,590, E. Keen)
Zworykin (I.R.E. Proc., Vol. 17, No. 3, March, 1929, V. Zworykin)
Brower (U.S. Patent 1,834,330, W.M. Brower)
Gray (U.S. Patent 1,974,067, F. Gray)
Dimmick (U.S. Patent 1,989,973, G.L. Dimmick)
Williams (U.S. Patent 1,991,479; U.S. Patent 1,991,480, R.M. Williams)
Reynolds (Bell sys. Tech. Jl., Vol. 15, pp.549-574, October; Elec. Eng., Voll. 55, pp. 996-1007, September, 1936, F.W. Reynolds)
Schmierer ( U.S. Patent 2,002,551, M. Schmierer)
Schroter (U.S. Patent 2,004,587, F. Schroter)
(C) Marius Rensen